The research and education in the Subprogram in Philosophy (master’s program and doctoral program) encompass the three areas of philosophy, ethics, and religion. Philosophy falls roughly into three approaches: Western philosophy, Eastern philosophy, and Scientific philosophy (including Contemporary philosophy), however, these have a common ground intended to cultivate the power to clarify a wide variety of issues, considerable intellect, and outside-the-box ability to come up with conceptional ideas. Ethics has two centers: the history of ethical thought as “history” and ethics as “knowledge”. The former covers modern and contemporary western ethical thought and the latter includes hermeneutics, historical philosophy, anthropology, ethical theory, rights theory, normative theory, political philosophy, and communication theory, however, the right interpretation of the history of ethical thought and profound interpretation of human existence are required in all cases. Religion is comprised of religious studies and Indian and Buddhist studies, however, it allows students to learn about methods and theories of religious research and various religious phenomena extensively from all sides. The field of religion also conducts research and fieldworks from traditional religions including Buddhism and Christianity to new religions, relationship between religion and society, religious thought, etc. through methods of the science of religion, history of religion, sociology of religion, philosophy of religion, etc. The field of Indian and Buddhist studies explores various thinking on Indian thought and Buddhism grounded in refined literature study. Students in the master’s program will take up courses for prescribed credits across two or more areas in major subjects offered in the 3 areas discussed above, in addition to learning mindset and facilitation techniques for productive dialogue and discussion in “Philosophical Practice”, a compulsory general foundation subject. Under certain conditions as needed, it is also possible to take up major subjects in other degree programs and subprograms. Students also select their main academic advisor from any of the research areas mentioned above depending on their interest, advance their own research under the supervision of their advisor, and write their thesis to get a master’s degree. Furthermore, after consulting with their main academic advisor, students can select their co-advisor irrespective of the research area and receive guidance. Students in the doctoral program are intent to write their dissertation to get a doctoral degree under the supervision of their main academic advisor through “Doctoral Dissertation Seminar in Philosophy” and other subjects with the guidance of their co-advisor in addition to practicing their presentation with a focus on the common “Seminar in Presentation Skills”. Experience in presenting papers on the results of their studies at academic conferences, etc. and posting articles in academic journals of their specialized field in the process is also a condition for their thesis submission to get a doctoral degree.